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实施堕胎的医生违背了希波克拉底誓言

时间:2012-09-01  来源:原创  作者:webmaster  

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古希腊医学的代表人物,希波克拉底(约前460-前377),被尊称为现代医学之父。他曾建立了“四体液病理学说”,认为疾病乃体内四液(血、粘液、黄胆汁和黑胆汁)失调之结果,人体四液平衡则健康。

希波克拉底关于医德的系统论述对后世有深远的影响。至今《希波克拉底誓言》仍然是医学院学生最先学习的内容。

希波克拉底誓言中有强调“不为妇人实施堕胎术”,即使是在对方要求之下。

以下为希波克拉底誓言的中文译文全文(自国家医学考试网,原文为希腊文):

医神阿波罗、埃斯克雷彼斯及天地诸神作证,我———希波克拉底发誓:

我愿以自身判断力所及,遵守这一誓约。凡教给我医术的人,我应像尊敬自己的父母一样,尊敬他。作为终身尊重的对象及朋友,授给我医术的恩师一旦发生危急情况,我一定接济他。把恩师的儿女当成我希波克拉底的兄弟姐妹;如果恩师的儿女愿意从医,我一定无条件地传授,更不收取任何费用。对于我所拥有的医术,无论是能以口头表达的还是可书写的,都要传授给我的儿女,传授给恩师的儿女和发誓遵守本誓言的学生;除此三种情况外,不再传给别人。

我愿在我的判断力所及的范围内,尽我的能力,遵守为病人谋利益的道德原则,并杜绝一切堕落及害人的行为。我不得将有害的药品给予他人,也不指导他人服用有害药品,更不答应他人使用有害药物的请求。尤其不施行给妇女堕胎的手术。我志愿以纯洁与神圣的精神终身行医。因我没有治疗结石病的专长,不宜承担此项手术,有需要治疗的,我就将他介绍给治疗结石的专家。

无论到了什么地方,也无论需诊治的病人是男是女、是自由民是奴婢,对他们我一视同仁,为他们谋幸福是我惟一的目的。我要检点自己的行为举止,不做各种害人的劣行,尤其不做诱奸女病人或病人眷属的缺德事。在治病过程中,凡我所见所闻,不论与行医业务有否直接关系,凡我认为要保密的事项坚决不予泄漏。

我遵守以上誓言,目的在于让医神阿波罗、埃斯克雷彼斯及天地诸神赐给我生命与医术上的无上光荣;一旦我违背了自己的誓言,请求天地诸神给我最严厉的惩罚!

 

虽然,在1948年日内瓦世界医学协会大会上对上述希波克拉底誓言做了修订,其中关于堕胎的论述被删掉了。但仍然保留了这样一句话:“我将要尽可能地维护人的生命,自从受胎时起”。此应是考虑到在某些情况下危及母亲生命时,可能需要采取的堕胎措施,例如在胎儿停止发育(死亡)时,只能采取堕胎措施。

希波克拉底将不实施堕胎术写进这样的誓言中,说明他对此非常重视。这个誓言还提到了“不得将有害的药品给予他人”,由此我们可以看出他堕胎问题的态度。我们如此尊重希波克拉底,却为什么要忽视他的这一重要教导呢。

希波克拉底誓言的英文译文如下:

I swear by Apollo Physician by Asclepius, by Health, by Panacea, and by all the gods and goddesses, making them my witnesses, that I will carry out, according to my ability and judgment, this oath and this indenture.

To hold my teacher in this art equal to my own parents; to make him partner in my livelihood; when he is in need of money to share mine with him; to consider his family as my own brothers, and to teach them this art, if they want learn it, without fee or indenture.

To impart precept, oral instruction, and all other instruction to my own son, the sons of my teacher, and to indentures pupils who have taken the physician's oath, but to nobody else. I will use treatment to help the sick according to my ability and judgment, but never with a view to injury and wrongdoing. Neither will I administer a poison to anybody when asked to do so, nor will I suggest such a course.

Similarly, I will not give to a woman a pessary to cause abortion. But I will keep pure and holy both my life and my art.

I will not use the knife, not even, verily, on sufferers from stone, but I will give place to such as are craftsmen therein, Into whatsoever houses I enter, I will enter to help the sick, and I will abstain from all intentional wrongdoing and harm, especially from abusing the bodies of man or woman, bond or free.

And whatsoever I shall see or hear in the course of my profession, as well as outside my profession in my intercourse with men, if it be what should not be published abroad, I will never divulge, holding such things to be holy secrets.

Now, if I carry out this oath, and break it not, may I gain forever reputation among all men for my life and for my art; but if I transgress it and forswear myself, may the opposite befall me.

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